Final Assignment — Concrete Shell Cast

My initial idea is to try to use concrete to copy this paper folding structure showing above. As a result I may get a shell-like concrete structure which is generated from the shape of the paper.

I choose the fabric form work to achieve this.

Using the sticks and strings to imitate the folding edges of the paper, and then cover it with the fabric to get the mold.

The recipe of the concrete is 1 cement, 0.5 water and 0.5 sand. The mixture is almost liquid like, which makes it easier to pour it evenly onto the fabric.

Due to the weight of the concrete, the wooden sticks bent to a curve.

At first I used 1kg of the mixture. But then I doubled it to make the structure bend over even more, As a result I got an approximately semi circle, which is a more reasonable shape for a shell structure.

Made a mistake when I went to check it about 24 hours later. I somehow moved it and the wooden sticks suddenly rebounded and teared my cast apart. But I managed to glue them together.

This is the final view of the cast. As the cast is the opposite to the mold. It is actually not a very strong structure. The position that is supposed to be beams are actually weak while the position of ceilings are too heavy. I think if I use the concrete as the mold and cast again then I can get a reasonable structure.

Assignment 5

First step is to make the mold, by folding the paper into a pipe, using the method showing above. I choose the cardboard as the material, seems like it is strong enough in this size. My first try failed, as you can see in the right picture above, because the concrete won’t go through, not even a little bit. I think there are two reasons: not enough water and the paper pipe is too thin.

So in my second test. I adjusted the recipe, doubled the amount of water,  so the mix turned out to be liquid like. And also, I re-folded the paper to make it less in height, but much more wide opened.  This time, after adding the concrete, I can see it was going down slowly and then it stopped at some point. I guess it was turning into solid there.

In the result, you can see the concrete stopped approximately half way and due to this the cast also broke down from the middle.



Our plan is to fix the plastic pillars on to the cardboard, using them to creat the impression, then pour the concrete over it and use the fabric to fix the shape. Probably because the plastic pillars are not strong enough, we found out that we cannot make the fabric tight enough and probably cannot get the result we want. So we choose to add the ropes on to our installation, to provide a downside impression as well as help fix the shape. Then it works much better and as a result, we get a piece of concrete showing the upside impression from the pillars and the downside impression from the ropes.

Jigging and Plugs



Our second test is about jigging and plugs. We use large-headed nails to plug two pieces of 5*5 cardboard on to the 10*10 concrete piece, hopefully we could get a piece of concrete with regular patterns on it. Probably because we squeezed it too hard, trying to make the patterns more obvious, otherwise because the plug-in nails have made the concrete structure weak, we found several cracks in our result. The good news is that the patterns are quite visible.

Assigment 03 | consistency

For this assigment we wanted to test possibilites of fluid concrete consitesncy. At first we preperded concrete from basic recepie given dureing the course, than we started adding more water and playing around with form. Basic mix, was very dry at the beginning but become more mouldable and fluid in a way which remind us of “play doug”.


With this kind of concrete we wanted to test if it is possible to make a cubic shape using quite fluid material without building a mould. The result was surprising good. We achieved quite satisfying shape. It would be also possible to make edges sharper with some extra tools, but we stick to the idea of using just concrete during our process.



For this exercise we add some more water (probably around 100 ml) and try to recreate rings, that are showing up on a water when drop hits its surface. From the distance we were dropping small partitions of concrete mixture from the distance, one on top of another. The outcome was not what we expected. We couldn’t get the desired result. At the end we came to the conclusion that it would be possible if we put it layer by layer (layer of fluid concrete on the top of dried one) .




At the end we put some more water to te mixture and placed it on the top of the cup to see how it drips down. The result would be more spectacular if we put even more mater to the mix.



Assigment 02 | Group 6


Group 6 – Patrycja Komada, Xiangyu Kong

Mix 1 – sand 5

Mix 2 – water 0.6

Mix 3 – blue pigment 2%

Mix 4 – red pigment 2%

Mix 5 – black pigment 2%

Mixture 5 was the stiffest one, mix 3,4,5 were also quite stiff and they harden quite quick. Mix 3 with blue pigment did not get the required colour, probably because of the wrong proportions of pigment. In the first calculations for the pigment / cement ratio, we used wrong weight (of the whole cast not of the cement), but correct it before we stared working with mixtures. Only mix 2 required shaking, because that one contained more water, but it turned out to be the smoothest of all casts.


Zero per stool

Made by Hattern

Hybrid wood technique is to solidify cured resin with cracked wood pieces after pouring into a mold. These materials are recreated into various forms of products such as fountain pen, stamp using handwork. The translucent resin is to exhibit the shape of abandoned woods plainly as well as is to be stuffed the pieces of wood.

Zero per stool is consisted of two parts which are the legs with White Oak collection tree and the upper board with application of hybrid wood technique. The offcuts from the legs are solidified with cured resin and reformed to the upper board as the essential structure of the stool. The waste produced from the product is reduced to almost 0%.

I appreciate this piece of work for its consideration of reducing the waste in the industrial production.

Combine cement

New York-based Amma Studio has created a range of coffee tables and stools made by molding cement with a range of unexpected materials.

First, cement was added in layers to create texture, then combined with a “raw material” held together using a UV-protected epoxy resin.

The resin binds the material to itself and to the cement to create a continuous cylindrical form.

Materials they experimented with include rock salts, silica, sand and BB pellets, all in a range of colors, as well as coffee grounds.

Their main aim is for contrast, trying to find the right texture to complement the smoothness of the cement – or the right color to balance the texture of the raw material. 

I think this is a very experimental method, and can be widely adapted to many different materials. So that you can get many different outcomes.