Nahuku/Thurston Lava Tube

hawaii10.jpg

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/hawaii/slidepages/slide_10.html

Found throughout the Big Island of Hawaii, lava tubes and caves are perfect examples of how nature forms itself. Lava caves like the one in the picture above are formed when a river of lava gradually builds solid walls and a ceiling as it is flowing. When the lava flow stops and the last of it passes downhill and into the ocean, a tube/cave is left. These caves can be a few feet high and only yards long, or they can stretch for miles with high ceilings.

Having explored some of these myself, I find it fascinating how the lava cools around itself and forms these kind of gravity defying spaces that create networks of tunnels under the surface of the islands.

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Pāhoehoe, unbroken lava

ropy_pahoehoe

Made by: Unbroken lava
Materials: Lava

Process:

Lava is the molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption. The resulting rock after solidification and cooling is also called lava.

Pāhoehoe lava (found in Hawaii) has a smooth, billowy, undulating, or ropy surface. These surface features are due to the movement of very fluid lava under a congealing surface crust. The Hawaiian word, Pāhoehoe, meaning ”smooth, unbroken lava”.

A pāhoehoe flow typically advances as a series of small lobes and toes that continually break out from a cooled crust. The surface texture of pāhoehoe flows varies widely, displaying all kinds of bizarre shapes often referred to as lava sculpture. Pahoehoe lavas typically have a temperature of 1,100 to 1,200 °C.

What I found to be interesting was that the material is in a constant process and development. I further believe that this handling of the material could be something worth investigating.
Source: http://seismo.berkeley.edu/~manga/EPS214/rope.jpg